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- measurement of horizontal angle by reiteration method using theodolite Theodolite basic surveying instrument of unknown origin but going back to the 16th century English mathematician Leonard Digges it is used to measure horizontal and vertical angles. 3 Distance measuring 18 research showed most of the methods in angle metrology deal with the flat angle calibration. Stadia Surveying The Theory of Stadia Measurements Accompanied by Tables of Horizontal Distances and Differences of Level for the Reduction of Stadia Field Observations fyfu 28. Leica Digital Electronic Theodolite LDT 05 Model Number 6003830 Description The Leica LDT 05 Digital Electronic Theodolite is an economical but advanced instrument for measuring angles and slope with five second accuracy for precise measurements a laser plummet for fast and easy setup a reticle illuminator for bright views and other attractive highlights. The direction of each foresight is measured in relationship to the backsight. Introduction Theodolite is used to measure horizontal and vertical angles. Angle measurement Measurement of horizontal angles Horizontal angles by repetition method Horizontal angles by reiteration method Measurement of vertical angles. Determination of horizontal nbsp To study about the Temporary and Permanent adjustments of a Theodolite Lower clamp is clamped and the point P is bisected exactly using tangent screws. Direct method 2. . Anyhow a vernier theodolite measures the angles up to and accuracy of 10 20 . ii . 3 9. x y z Angles and Directions In planar geometry an angle is the figure formed by two rays called the sides of the angle sharing a common endpoint called the vertex of the angle. Several angles measures successively nbsp 1 Nov 2019 Surveyor Semester 2 Module 2 Theodolite Survey observations made for measuring a horizontal angle between B Reiteration method. The method of reiteration of measuring horizontal angles is generally preferred when several angles are to be measured at a particular station. 8 Measure deflection angle Sep 27 2020 A theodolite is a device for measuring horizontal and vertical angles. Measurement of horizontal angles by method of repetition 3. Elelectronic Method. There are variety of theodolite vernier optic electronic etc. Set up the Vernier A to zero of nbsp 13 Jun 2014 We can measure raise and fall b w different point on the earth. 21 Aug 2016 The method of reiteration is another method of measuring horizontal angles. Measure the horizontal angle and distance between the two adjacent points. For rough or approximate survey work the ordinary method of measuring horizontal angles is used as it is less time consuming. methods of measuring horizontal angles using theodolite. To measure the horizontal angle by Reiteration method with the use of nbsp Measurement of horizontal angles by Reiteration method. Make temporary and permanent adjustments of theodolite. Study of theodolite in detail practice for measurement of horizontal 1. These angle measurements with the zenith as the zero value are called the ZENITH DISTANCES. The size of the theodolite is defined by the diameter of horizontal circle. 6 Measurement of Theodolite is an intricate instrument used mainly for accurate measurement of horizontal Then approximate leveling is done using this stand . Trignometrical leveling single plane and double plane methods. Measurement of horizontal angles by method of repetition and reiteration. 4. Study of Theodolite in detail practice for measurement of horizontal and vertical angles 3. 11 Determination of horizontal distance and vertical height to a base inaccessible object using theodolite by single plane and double plane method. Now after measuring the angle close the upper tangent screw and open the lower tangent screw. Sep 10 2011 Aim To measure the horizontal angles between the given stations about the instrument station as the vertex by the method of reiteration. Mar 21 2013 When using the traditional 3D coordinate measuring method with two theodolites 3 7 the measurement process is as follows firstly the theodolites must be leveled and be orientated relatively by aiming mutually and then the theodolites survey the target points together finally the 3D coordinates of the target points are calculated THEODOLITE. 9. 17 To locate the plane table station using three point problem. It s really handy to be able to measure angles. Step 3 Calculate Opposite Adjacent 300 400 0. Theodolite Measurement of horizontal angles by repetition and reiteration methods. Wheel tape does not provide high precision which is around 1 200 but provides a convenient way to conduct fast measurement on a path or road including its curves. MEASUREMENT OF HORIZONTAL ANGLES BY REPETITION METHOD AIM To measure the horizontal angle between the OA and OB O Instrument Station A Ranging Rods No. Record vertical angles if necessary. As well as the Theodolite and its tripod some way of accurately marking the points to be surveyed is required 1. Step 2 SOHCAHTOA tells us we must use Tangent. The theodolite should be set up and levelled at every station. 18 To locate the plane table station using two metron meaning swift measurement . This method is used if there are more than one angles to be measure from a certain station point. Distance is determined using a Theodolite vertical angle and Philadelphia Rod stadia interval . 2. In Fig. Trigonometric Leveling Heights and distance problem Two Exercises 4. 1 which tells us which direction the whale is in. 1 Measure vertical angles practice for measurement of horizontal and vertical angles 2 Measurement of horizontal angles by method of repetition and reiteration 3 Trigonometric Leveling Heights and distance problem Two Exercises 4 Heights and Theodolite Surveying Lab Manual theodolite surveying lab manual reading is a hobby to open the knowledge windows 5. METHODS. horizontal and vertical angles between two points iii. Theodolite will ask you to input the horizontal distance to the object then it will calculate the object 39 s approximate height based on the change in elevation angle between A and B. The traditional use has been for land surveying but they are also used extensively for building and infrastructure construction and some specialized applications such as meteorology and rocket launching. 7 you learned that when measuring a distance AB on sloping ground you need to correct this measurement in order to find the true horizontal distance AC but only when the slope exceeds 5 percent or about 3 degrees . Leveling is 1 Study of theodolite in detail practice for measurement of horizontal and vertical angles. Theodolites. To measure the angles and azimuths of your parcel. 1 minutes i. angles by using a Compass with respect to meridian The Theodolite is a most accurate surveying Measuring horizontal and vertical angles. New ones can perfectly calculate the angles instantly 1 3600th of a degree. Secure The Stadia is a method of measuring distances rapidly with. A Theodolite specialises in angle measurements horizontal and vertical to the precision of degree new ones can precisely measure angles in seconds 1 3600th of a degree . The second is for A B calculator points and passes name latitude longitude vertical angle horizontal angle and azimuth angle true . reiteration. 1 second of an arc and an angle resulting from Digital theodolites consist of a telescope that is mounted on a base as well as an electronic readout screen that is used to display horizontal and vertical angles. According to ISO 17123 part 3 regarding theodolite angle measurements it is stated that vertical angle measurements should be performed in the field using OPERATION OF A THEODOLITE D. 1 1. 20 September 2013 Surveying Surveying The theodolite Though for sketch maps the compass or graphic techniques are acceptable for measuring angles only the theodolite can assure the accuracy required in the framework needed for precise mapping. Whether you 39 ve loved the book or not if you give your honest and detailed thoughts then people will find new books that are right for them. The first instrument more like a true theodolite was likely the one built by Joshua Habermel de Erasmus Habermehl in Germany in 1576 complete with compass and tripod. All numerical data must be in decimal degrees. THE THEODOLITE MEASURING AN ALTITUDE ANGLE OR ZENITH DISTANCE September 27 2011 These angles are de ned with respect to local gravity altitude ALT is the angle up from the horizon zenith distance Z is the angle from the vertical so ALT 90 Z. Due to widely use of theodolite in surveying it increase their importance. 1 Distance measurement with vertical staff Study of theodolite in detail practice for measurement of horizontal 1. Theodolite or total station . Select Face L or R by transiting the telescope if Jun 15 2019 Step 4 Recording all the measurements. 5 Repetition Angle Measurement . 13 14 view B you should read the angle of elevation with values less than 90 and the angle of depression with values greater than 90 . Setup the instrument at station P. parallax Setting of Theodolote Bisection measurement of angles by methods of Repetition and reiteration errors in angular measurements and precautions for accurate observations. For proper operation the theodolite must be firmly mounted on a tripod. 10 . iii Loosen the lower clamp and turn the telescope clock wise until the object A is sighted again. 3 L4 11. A modern theodolite consists of a movable telescope mounted within two perpendicular axes There are three methods of measuring horizontal angles 1. 2 Measuring vertical angles 4. When the electronic distance measurer came into wide use in the latter half of the 20 th century it simplified the process dramatically. Trigonometrical levelling Height and distance Base of object inaccessible Problems related to trigonometrical levelling. 1 sec. 1 B Ranging Rod No. MEASURING HORIZONTAL ANGLES BY REPITITION AND REITERATION. Repetition method. Measurement of horizontal angles gon system Field observations and calculation 2 A. Because of its various uses the theodolite is sometimes known as quot Universal Instrument quot . Set the vernier at A to read zero using the upper clamp and upper nbsp Method of reiteration for measurement of horizontal angle is usually adopted in case several angles of well distributed points objects are to be measured from nbsp angles by using a Compass with respect to meridian which is less depression it becomes necessary to measure horizontal iii Reiteration Method. Nov 10 2019 Surveyors measure things in the real world. Measurement of Horizontal Angle Reiteration Method To measure the horizontal angle by Reiteraion method with the use of Theodolite. Either use repetition or reiteration to ensure greater accuracy of obtained readings. 4. order or lower using repeating theodolites and engineer 39 s transits. CLASS 2 Laser Product Please read this operator 39 s manual carefully before using this instrument. 44 To become familiar with using a steel tape to measure approximate horizontal distances. 11. 1 Horizontal Angle and Vertical Angle Measurement 7. 3 7. It is less For these reasons land surveyors rely on transits or their more modern equivalents called theodolites to measure angles. Heights and distance using principles of Tachometric surveying 6. Levels and calibrated circles allowed measurement of vertical angle will affect the rest of your traverse you should do at least a 3DR measurement six measurements . At times land surveying requires accurate angular readouts. Divide the total reading by n to get accurate horizontal angle between P and Q. Let f be the focal length Jan 23 2017 Angle measurement. Jan 08 2019 Use the horizontal angle zero reset key on the display unit. f Distance between two in accessible point measuring angle from a base line. Koram Samuel Sakyi Faculty of Civil Engineering and Mechanics Jiangsu University Zhenjiang China. A theodolite i d l a t is a precision optical instrument for measuring angles between designated visible points in the horizontal and vertical planes. The first scheme is for map markers and passes marker name latitude and longitude. J. Choose four other different points around 3600 sweep. SURVEYING. directions horizontal angles vertical angles distance measurements and or the survey method used triangulation 1 trilateration 2 traverse 3 or GPS 4 . The theodolite has the ability to measure two angles a vertical angle and a horizontal angle. This method of measurement is especially useful for several reasons Sep 07 2013 The upper clamp is then clamped and the object Q was bisect accurately by using upper slow motion screw. Infinitely variable spreading rates. The theodolite is the basic instrument for measuring horizontal and vertical angles. Ordinary Method Set up the theodolite at station point O and level it with face right also. Theodolite is a telescope mounted on horizontal and vertical protractors. 3 8. Precision depends on the type and is usually from 0. Procedure ii Direct the telescope towards point A which is known as referring object. The mean horizontal angle is then equal to the average of all the individual angles. Some theodolites measure horizontal angles with geodetic accuracy. 6. These devices ensure that angles make a safe and accurate structure. 3 Trigonometric leveling heights and distances problem two exercises . The most important instrument for exact survey work and many types are available to meet varying requirements of accuracy and precision with direct readings of the circle ranging from 5 min to 0. MEASUREMENT OF HORIZONTAL ANGLES BY REPETITION METHOD USING A THEODOLITE. Which of the following methods of theodolite traversing is suitable for locating the details which are far away from transit stations measuring angles to the point from at least two stations. When measuring a horizontal angle with a repeating theodolite The most common method was to bring the initial FS reading back to the BS Using the lock and slow motion point C is accurately sighted. com wKAWwc For more survey civil engineering video Like Subscribe Share My Channel Thanks Measurement of Horizontal Angle using Theodolite. 5 Explain the deferent methods of horizontal angle measurement general repetition and reiteration and their relative advantages and disadvantages. Closing the horizon method Reiteration method nbsp how do we find horizontal angle from repetition method using a theodolite Reply . In this method the distance are measured actual on the ground. Sight station X exactly face left. 75. 1 Use with the range finder EDM 18 7. However there is no specific rule as to when one definition ends and the other begins. It consists essentially of a sighting tube in form of a telescope an horizontal and vertical scales which are so set that horizontal and vertical angles of the object sighted in the telescope can be read from the scale see fig. 5 Measuring a percent of grade Slope measurement 17 7 Distance measurement 18 7. This method is adopted for precise works Face left and face right observations are essential All the readings should be entered in field book Sep 11 2011 The measurement of horizontal angle between the stations A and B is repeated for the desired number of repetitions and the cumulative horizontal angle observed in the last repetition is recorded. Leveling is Theodolite is an instrument used in surveying to measure horizontal and vertical angles. Measurement of vertical angle. 1 Horizontal angle measurement 4. This method is useful when a number of angles are to be measured at one po. Fig. 3 L4 12. Theodolites are similar to total stations except that the total stations are used when the distances Procedure to measure the height of an object using a vertical angle. Omitted measurements Problems in using theodolite traversing errors in theodolite traversing. Ranging rods 3. APPARATUS USED. angles i Ordinary Method. The procedure can be done independently. c Measurement of horizontal angle by reiteration d Measurement of horizontal angle by repetition method. Standard Equipment. Traversing is also easy. Press quot record quot button after each measurement. To determine the Horizontal Angle by theodolite Repetition Method . Reiteration method 1. These angles are read Apr 21 2020 Theodolite is a precise instrument which are use to measure horizontal and vertical angles. capabilities and ranges of standard surveying instruments for measuring horizontal angles. 16 To locate the points using method of Intersection ii Rediation . Loosen the lower clamp and turn nbsp Centering The process of setting the theodolite exactly over the station mark is known 2 MEASUREMENT OF HORIZONTAL ANGLE BY REPETITION METHOD Using sine formula the sides of the triangle formed by the lines of sight nbsp 15 May 2020 So far we have been measuring horizontal angles by using a Compass with respect to meridian Repetition method 2 Reiteration method. Measurement of horizontal angle by repetition method reiteration method setting out angles by repetition method measurement of vertical using theodolite closed and open traverse computation determination of consecutive coordinates nbsp 2 Evidence for this unit standard must be provided without using a Global Positioning System. 11 consists of a telescope for sighting distant target objects two measurement wheels that work like protractors for reading horizontal and vertical angles and bubble levels to ensure that the measurements using either the directional method or the repetition method. Heights and distance using Principles of tacheometric surveying Two Exercises 5. The traditional theodolite consists of a sighting instrument that can be rotated horizontally and vertically and two calibrated circular plates positioned so as to measure the amount of horizontal or vertical rotation in degrees. Using the provided transit or theodolite set up the instrument over a point assigned by the instructor . 12 To determine distance and elevation using tachometric surveying with To measure a horizontal angle by Method of repetition ii Method of reiteration. A theodolite is called Jun 16 2012 Measurement of Horizontal Angle The procedure is explained for measuring horizontal angle PQR at station Q Ref. Set Horizontal scale to zero and ensure both clamps are tightened. 4 Heights and distance using principles of tacheometric surveying two exercises . Tacheometer Determination of tacheometer constants. The reading on the both verneir were taken the reading of verneir A gives directly the angle P and Q while the vertical angle P and Q on verneir B can be obtained by reducing 180 0 from the reading. 42. 14 Plotting accuracy 114 3. NITTTR CHENNAI EDUCATIONAL VIDEOS 78 587 views. Dec 13 2019 There are three main types of horizontal or linear distance measurement. The theodolite helps us a good within the engineering field. To determine whether the angles close within sufficient precision then to balance the angles and then compute the azimuths of each side of your figure. Theodolite 2. Reiteration Method. The first instrument of this sort was made by Jesse Ramsden in London in 1787 and purchased by the Royal Society for use on the geodetic link between Greenwich and Paris. Theodolite Experiment 1 Study of parts of a Transit Theodolite and its temporary adjustments 3 Experiment2 Measurement of horizontal angle by Repetition method 3 Experiment3 Measurement of horizontal angle by Reiteration method 3 Experiment4 Measurement of vertical angle 3 Experiment5 Open traversing using theodolite and plotting 3 Methods 1. b Measurement of horizontal angle by general method. Enter code 20 BS Figure 2. However all these observations are limited for covered area accuracy time sophistication money and use of many other latest devices. It can also be used for locating points on a line prolonging survey lines finding difference in elevations setting out grades ranging curves etc. Measure The horizontal angle AOB. The precision of the measurement can exceed the least count of the instrument. Measurement of distances and elevations. Directional Method The horizontal circle remains fixed during a series of observations. The coded scales of the horizontal and vertical circles are scanned electronically and then the angles and Jun 27 2019 You received some good responses here but let me add a few bits of info. Process of Measuring Horizontal Angles Using a Theodolite 1. Record the horizontal and vertical angles using the electronic display. This one of the most important measurement tools on a construction site is characterized by a fairly extensive construction for this type of instruments. The process of turning the telescope about the vertical axis in horizontal plane is known as a transiting There are three methods of measuring horizontal angles 1. Instruments and Accessories Required Theodolite Pegs Arrows Ranging rod etc. Repetition method 3. Used to measure horizontal and vertical angles the theodolite remained the backbone of geodetic surveys from the 1800s until the early 1980s. The transit and theodolite are used by the surveyor to measure both horizontal and vertical angles. To measure horizontal angle between two objects by repetition method with three repetitions. Mohammad Bilal says at. 6 List the uses of theodolite. Another method for vertical angle measurement system calibration developed by Leica Switzerland is based on the mirror and autocollimator measurements. 2 Bearings 115 3. 3. 3 Type of theodolite 4 Theodolite basic surveying instrument of unknown origin but going back to the 16th century English mathematician Leonard Digges it is used to measure horizontal and vertical angles. Point the total nbsp Theodolite Surveying v. Method of Assessment Pen paper test. It is the art of measuring horizontal and vertical distances between objects of measuring angles between lines of determining the direction of lines and of establishing points by predetermined angular and linear measurements. Principles of Stadia Method Figure 23. Normative references 3. Angle POQ QOR and ROS are to be measured. Jan 01 2003 A 500m long 5 section base line was first established and marked by wooden stakes at 100m intervals. Horizontal angles are measured with this plate. determining vertical angles with the t16. measuring horizontal angles with the t16. Press the appropriate measurement buttons distance horizontal angle and vertical angle. 10 Determination of remote height using total station. However theodolites aren t just used for surveying. When we see a whale the theodolite measures the horizontal angle from the reference point to the whale Fig. Sight BS at station 114 zero horizontal circle most tachometers have a zero set button. Repetition method This method is adopted 1. LP400 series Laser Theodolite provides a visible laser beam that can be seen up to 150 meters away outside through eyepiece in day light. Now unlock the theodolite and aim it at the till which angle is to be noted. These measurements are used to plot boundary lines building foundations and utility routing. However a vernier theodolite measures the angles up to and accuracy of 10 20 . 14 Reiteration Each time a further angle measurement is taken the hori Using the microscope knob set the reading of the seconds drum to 0 minutes. HORIZONTAL ANGLES ELECTRONIC THEODOLITE This method is designed to minimise the time spent by a pole person moving between the points defining the angle. 1 Study of theodolite in detail practice for measurement of horizontal and vertical angles. Measurement of horizontal angles with sexagesimal theodolite with a built in distance meter distancer and so it can measure angles and distances at the same time. Jul 15 2018 Describe the deflection angle method in detail SSC JE 2007 . Sep 27 2020 A theodolite is a device for measuring horizontal and vertical angles. 35 MEASUREMENT OF HORIZONTAL ANGLES iii Reiteration Method. 1 The Indian Clinometer its construction and principle on which its functioning is based the measurement of The horizontal angle is the measure of inaccuracy hence accuracy that a theodolite can horizontally measure or locate within. For horizontal measurement of angles any direction can be taken as reference. Secondary control for large area survey. Sight the top of the object A and read the vertical angle 1. Tacheometric traversing. Thus as well as needing a distance an angle is needed. O Magnetic compass measures the angle up to as O accuracy of 30 39 . An instrument used for the measurement of angles is called a theodolite the horizontal and vertical circles of which can be likened to circular protractors set in horizontal and vertical planes. Consider the following fiqure we will measure angles AOB and BOC using this method. The method of reiteration is another method of measuring horizontal angles. Pegs or Arrows THEORY Reiteration is a method of measuring horizontal angles with high precision. computing horizontal and vertical angles. Using theodolite 1. The theodolite is then set on the face left mode and the vernier A on the horizontal circle is initially set at 180 00 00 and the station B is Click hear for download PDF Notes For Free http destyy. Compass traversing. 1 Theodolite tribrach with circular level and optical plummet methods of astronomic observation to be employed. To measure horizontal angle AOB i Set up the theodolite at station point O and level it accurately. 3 Setting a horizontal angle 14 6. 6 . angular measurements are more accurate than linear measurements. Angle repetition. Methods For Measuring Distances Subtense Bar Distances are determined using a theodolite to determine a horizontal angle subtended by Theodolites are essential surveying instruments used for the measurement of horizontal and vertical angles. General 4. 27 nbsp 23 Jul 2019 Answer Method of reiteration for measurement of horizontal angle is measuring of horizontal angle by reiteration method using theodolite 1. leader of the party has 4 arrows in his hand while the follower has 6. Measurement of horizontal angles gon system Example of field observations and calculation 1 B. Aug 10 2018 1. The first instrument more like a true theodolite was likely the one built by Joshua Habermel de ErasmusHabermehl in Germany in 1576 research showed most of the methods in angle metrology deal with the flat angle calibration. This instrument plays a major role in measurement horizontal angles vertical angles bearing etc. 3 10. Bisect it accurately and check the reading of vernier as 0 or 3600 . When using the traditional 3D coordinate measuring method with two theodolites 3 7 the measurement process May 31 2018 an annular horizontal plate with the graduations provided all around from 0 to 360 in a clockwise direction. If a theodolites accuracy rating is 2 seconds written 2 then its only going to lose 2 seconds of horizontal measurement in a given distance. Measure a vertical angle from 01 to the How to Use a Theodolite for Measuring Horizontal amp Vertical Angles. Direct Method. In Chapter 2 Sections 2. A transit consists of a telescope for seeing distant target objects two measurement wheels that work like protractors for reading horizontal and vertical angles and bubble levels to ensure that the angles are true. Horizontal angles at the one end of the line from a permanently fixed nearby triangulation point to each of the wooden stakes were first established using a Wild T3 precision theodolite in conjunction with a Wild GZT 1 survey target. Later more precise scribed discs improved angular resolution. Measure and enter the height of the reflector HR . The arithmetic mean of these observations gives true value of an angle. KL 10 06 Contents Measurement of horizontal angles. Aim To measure the horizontal angles by reiteration method. Knowing the value of this parameter and using the formulas of trigonometry one can determine the linear dimensions of the object of interest height or the distance to the object. Its purpose is to measure vertical and or horizontal angles. iii Reiteration Method. Results showed that the horizontal angle was accurately determined but this was not A number of tracking methods can be used in order to obtain the position of a shore based technique to measure interanimal spacing using a theodolite nbsp Using the same instrument students can learn from each other how to read scales and use A theodolite can measure angles in both the horizontal and vertic. Verify that all 6. 10. Bisect B accurately by using the The theodolite is mainly used to measure horizontal and vertical angles even though many other operations can be done with the instrument. Examples of Total Stations are the Nikon DTM 801 Topcon and Geodimeter 400 series. Theodolite is an instrument used to measure horizontal and vertical angles. Stadia Surveying The Theory of Stadia Measurements Accompanied by Tables of Horizontal Distances and Differences of Level for the Reduction of Stadia Field Observations Classic Reprint Jun 27 2020 Jul 07 2020 Nowadays theodolite is shadowed and replaced by the use of Total Station which can carry out the same task with greater ease and accurate results. This would help compensate for any circle irregularities recall that a theodolite 39 s circle is etched glass . Vertical angles require the use of a transit or theodolite. 1 Single angle measurement 4. May 30 2019 Repetition Method. 26 Conversion of horizontal angles into bearings 121 3. Theodolite Traversing 1. Theodolites measure angles and surveyors use them to measure angles because they are robust precise and can be taken into the field. 3 Traverse angle measurement 4. 4 Repetition angle measurement 14 6. Theodolites are used mainly for surveying applications and have been adapted for specialized purposes in fields like metrology and rocket launch technology. Then you will measure the angle with a protractor see step 11 below . Theodolite is an instrument used for a tightening the capstan headed nuts of level tube b measurement of horizontal angles only c measurement of vertical angles only d measurement of both horizontal and vertical angles Ans d. LAB 13 HORIZONTAL ANGLE MEASUREMENT AN OBJECT HEIGHT BY MEASURING VERTICAL. 3. A theodolite measures distance manually by chains of standardized length or metal measuring tapes along the length of the desired angle. EDM instruments are highly reliable and convenient pieces of surveying equipment and can be used to measure distances of up to 100 kilometers. Step 1 The two sides we know are Opposite 300 and Adjacent 400 . JE KO CALIBRATION AND VERIFICATION OF HORIZONTAL CIRCLES OF ELECTRONIC THEODOLITES KEY WORDS calibration primary standard of planar angle optical traverse horizontal circle of theodolite Dec 17 2018 A surveyor 39 s theodolite is used to measure horizontal and vertical angles. This is where surveying theodolites come in handy. ii Repetition method. Horizontal angle 0 set 11 Verticle angle 11 Mode conversion of horizontal rightward and leftward turning increment 11 Horizontal angle locked unlocked 12 Slope percent mode 12 Angular repeated measurement 12 Distance measurement using stadio method 13 Buzz function 13 Theodolite is used to measure the horizontal and vertical angles. Theodolite Traversing Unit V 2. e Closed theodolite traverse measurement included angle. To measure vertical angle of given points by Electronic theodolite. The method for calibration of vertical angle measuring systems of geodetic instruments was developed at Institute of Geodesy of Vilnius Gediminas Technical University. Measure and record the clockwise horizontal angles between the reference A theodolite i d l a t is a precision optical instrument for measuring angles between designated visible points in the horizontal and vertical planes. Unlock Figure 1 42 Electronic theodolite 1 45 Figure 1 43 Electronic distance measuring device 1 46 Figure 1 44 Total station instrument 1 46 Figure 1 45 Electric data collector 1 47 Figure 1 46 Surveying accessories used with the major instruments 1 48 Figure 1 47 Two peg method for adjusting levels 1 52 For these reasons land surveyors rely on transits or their more modern equivalents called theodolites to measure angles. Magnetic compass measures the angle up to as accuracy of 30 . MEASUREMENT OF HORIZONTAL ANGLES ii Repetition Method. Setting up the Theodolite This includes mounting the theodolite on a tripod and making sure it is comfortable for the user. Repetition Method. measure horizontal angle by method of A Theodolite can calculate the horizontal and vertical angles precisely. Land surveying students use a theodolite 5. 24 Arbitrary north 116 3. As you have seen with other methods you can obtain more accurate results if you repeat the procedure at least twice to discover possible errors. Horizontal distance and angle measurements are then used to calculate the position of a point on the horizontal plane. of angle in a 17 horizon i. 25 Types of bearing 117 3. 2 Switching horizontal angle HAR HAL 13 6. Oscillating base plate to reduce bridging. Procedures for theodolites Tables 1 A. Ordinary Method. 3 Record the observation in the field book 3. 3 6. of theodolite in detail angles. Theodolite is widely used to obtain both horizontal and vertical angles between various station points at different elevations with the highest precision 1 to 20 seconds . The total Station accommodates the functions of a theodolite for measuring angles an EDM for measuring gaps digital data and information documentation. Make sure you measure the HD not SD because you Setting out for distance direction and height Whenever a particular direction and horizontal distance is to be entered for the purpose of locating the point on the ground using a target then the instrument displays the angle through which the theodolite has to be turned and the distance by which the reflector should move. 3 Type of theodolite 4 Theodolite surveying study of theodolite temporary and permanent adjustments measurement of horizontal angles method of repetition and reiteration measurement of vertical angles theodolite traverse calculation of coordinates corrections traverse table omitted measurements tacheometric surveying stadia system fixed and movable hair methods staff held vertical and normal Angular Method Used when length of curve is large More accurate than the linear methods . Usually it consists of a telescope mounted on two rotating disks or dials marked with degrees from 0 to 360 . Study of theodolite in detail practice for measurement of horizontal and vertical angles. ii Repetition Method. 0 Determine the height and distances using theodolite 3. There is another method of getting precise horizontal angles. Theory Reiteration is a method of measuring horizontal angles with high precision. theodolite with a built in distance meter distancer and so it can measure angles and distances at the same time. The following points should be noted while using the instrument. It is of either transit or non transit type. Historically horizontal angles were measured by using a compass to provide a magnetic bearing or azimuth. ANGLE. This method is useful when a number of angles are to be measured at one point. Theodolite is a device designed for geodetic design and construction work. It is a branch of surveying where horizontal distance and vertical distance can be obtained through stadia line by using teodolite. Let a and b be the lower and the upper stadia hairs of the instrument and their actual vertical separation be designated as i. PERMANENT nbsp design civil structures using construction components and to meet Theodolite Surveying Types of Theodolites Fundamental Lines temporary adjustments measurement of horizontal angle by repetition method and reiteration method nbsp 16 Jan 2017 Angle repetition. MEASUREMENT OF HORIZONTAL ANGLES i Ordinary Method. ADVERTISEMENTS The theodolite is most accurate instrument used mainly for measuring horizontal and vertical angles. 2 Measure horizontal angles by general meth ods repetition method and reiteration method 2. 2020 Sep 18 2013 Aim at the bottom of the object to be measured and tap the A button then aim at the top of the object and tap B. Sep 08 2020 Theodolite definition a surveying instrument for measuring horizontal and vertical angles consisting of a Meaning pronunciation translations and examples The modern theodolite automatically levels itself in the vertical axis so that for a horizontal angle instrument when the telescope is level the Vertical V reading is 0 or 180 degrees. Electronic distance measurement EDM is a method of determining the length between two points using electromagnetic waves. Another tool that performs similar functions is a transit. Errors Eliminated by Measuring the Horizontal Angles by Repetition . Each person will set up and run the instrument for at least one point of the traverse. Using slope to calculate horizontal distances 9. MEASUREMENT OF HORIZONTALANGLES There are three methods of measuring horizontal angles i Ordinary Method. We can Horizontal angle reads with the method of Repitition and reiteration. 6 and 2. THEODOLITE SURVEYING. 5. The repetition method is used when high accuracy is required. Digital theodolites are convenient because the digital readouts take the place of traditional graduated circles and this creates more accurate readings. Theodolite 0. Procedure. Leveling systems are fitted for accurate installation of theodolites. quot 5. Measurement of vertical angles by a theodolite is a very popular function. Theodolite traverse. List of Instrument used for direct measurement. A transit Figure 5. Study of theodolite in detail practice for measurement of horizontal and vertical angles. Use a total station or optical theodolite for the angle measurements. It has laser pointer brightness and focus adjustableIt can achieve measurement calculating display and memory A repetition is a single observation in a series of observations of a horizontal angle made with a repeating theodolite. Theodolite may be defined as the optical survey instrument that is used to measure the angles between the specified points both in the vertical and horizontal plane. Theodolites are primarily classified as 1 Transit and ADVERTISEMENTS 2 Non transit. Stadia Surveying The Theory of Stadia Measurements Accompanied by Tables of Horizontal Distances and Differences of Level for the Reduction of Stadia Field Observations 35 27 Jun by xunep 1. Other readers will always be interested in your opinion of the books you 39 ve read. 3 Use of theodolite for various works such as prolongation of a straight line setting out an angle bearing measurements. 15 To determine the multiplying constant amp additive constant of tacheometer. The accuracy of the result may be slightly reduced by the extra theodolite manipulation. By coupling the use of two theodolites with their ability to measure two angles a person is able to determine the exact point in space where the rocket is located. ProcedureSetup coordinate measuring method with electronic theodolites has been applied widely in the eld because of its advantages such as real time non contact wide measuring range exibility high precision and so on 1 3 . Aug 31 2019 10. Syllabus Theodolite Surveying Objective various parts of transit theodolite technical terms temporary and permanent adjustments of a transit measuring horizontal and vertical angles methods of repetition and reiteration computation of latitude and departure balancing of traverse by BowDitch s transit rule third rule and The theodolite is a complex instrument used mainly for accurate measurement of horizontal and vertical angle up to 10 quot or 20 quot depending upon the least count of the instrument. Determination of remote height using total station. It suitable to use in valley river and area where many obstructed. Rough distance measurement Using a Measuring Wheel. Uses of theodolite Following are the different purpose for which theodolite can Even as late as the 19 th century the instrument for measuring horizontal angles only was called a simple theodolite and the altazimuth instrument the plain theodolite. ii Repetition nbsp There are three methods of measuring horizontal angles 1. When measuring vertical angles with the theodolites fig. An electromagnetic pulse is sent out and when the measure tab is selected the TS measures both horizontal HA and vertical angles VA along with the slope distance SD Figure 12 This can then be converted directly into eastings E northings N and elevation Z . Find the angle of elevation of the plane from point A on the ground. Dec 08 2017 Repetition Method of measurement of Horizontal Angle. The line of sight of theodolite can be rotated through 180 o in vertical plane about its horizontal axis. 16. Theodolite Traversing. iii . Indirect measurement of an angle is a computed value of the angle from other data. Step 5 Data Processing. Firstly measure the angle between A and B same as in ordinary method. Apr 18 2018 The theodolite which measures horizontal and vertical angles has been used as a surveying tool since the 16 th century. 11 Stake out using total nbsp Reiteration method. The Total station is designed for measuring of slant distances horizontal and vertical angles and elevations in topographic and geodetic works tachometric surveys as well as for solution of application geodetic tasks. The angle measurement in the traversing is done by the theodolite. If the points are intervisible Figure 6 13 measure a horizontal angle from each point to the unknown point using the other point as the rear station. While the purpose of the two is similar as a general rule a theodolite is more accurate than a transit. The. The traversing in which we use the surveying instrument theodolite. 6. The distance between marks titik can be obtained without using a tape or chain. Equipment. In its modern form it consists of a telescope mounted to swivel both horizontally and vertically. . A Theodolite is a measuring instrument used to measure the horizontal and vertical angles. Method of Theodolite traversing. The measurement results can be recorded into the internal memory and transferred to a personal computer interface. So far we have been measuring horizontal angles by using a Compass with respect to meridian which is less accurate and also it is nbsp 2 Measurement of horizontal angles by method of repetition and reiteration. Nivel System DT 2L Electronic theodolite is a precise 2 second measurement instrument thanks to it you can easily and quickly determine the directions angles or specify a slope. May 11 2017 Measure the horizontal angle for n no of times so that the included angle accumulates to approximately n times the actual horizontal angle. Reiteration meth Method of Reiteration in Theodolite . ii Measure The horizontal angle AOB. Theodolite is used The angular methods are 1 Rankine method of tangential angles. The latest theodolites have infrared distance measuring devices for which regular infrared inspection is essential. To do this perform a series of simple operations. care of the t16 theodolite. 2 Measuring sets of angles 4. LAB 16 STUDY OF TOTAL STATION. MEASUREMENT OF HORIZONTAL ANGLES USING THEODOLITE. Buildings measurements. 1 A tacheometer is temporarily adjusted on the station P with horizontal line of sight. A theodolite is a measuring tool specifically designed to work with angles. Measurement of horizontal and vertical angle between two points 14 using theodolite. It is less tedious and is generally preferred when there are several angles to be measured at a station. Ordinary Method Set up the theodolite at station point O and level it 2. Trigonometric leveling heights and distance problem 5. EDM is commonly carried out with digital instruments called theodolites . A good quality theodolite used for geodetic surveys would be graduated to 0. and vertical angles. Loosen the lower clamp and turn the telescope clockwise to sight point B exactly. 1 measure a zenith angle with a theodolite 2 remove the theodolite from the tripod and mount the EDM often using the same tribrach to maintain the same setup and measure the slope distance and finally 3 manually reduce the slope distance to horizontal. This method is most suitable for the measurement of the horizontal angles having a common station. Stadia Surveying The Theory of Stadia Measurements Accompanied by Tables of Horizontal Distances and Differences of Level for the Reduction of Stadia Field Observations 28. Explain Reiteration Method. Repeat step 4. 1 Slope Reduction Using the Vertical Angle When the slope distance and the vertical angle are obtained from separate setups of an EDM and a theodolite additional information is required for reducing the slope distance. The following method are used for theodolite traversing 10 Sep 2011 The upper clamp screw is unclamped and the theodolite is swung to the right and the station B C D and A are sighted in sequence and the central nbsp 8 Jan 2020 theodolite to determine horizontal angle by reiteration method in hindi MEASUREMENT OF VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL ANGLE USING nbsp 10 Aug 2018 MEASUREMENT OF HORIZONTALANGLES There are three methods of measuring horizontal angles i Ordinary Method. 4 Angle measurement with the subtense bar 4 6. Angles and Directions The most common relative directions are left right forward s backward s up and down. quot 2. 5 and 6 The transit and theodolite are used by the surveyor to measure both horizontal and vertical angles. angular measurement 21 6. How to measure vertical angles To work with corners professional builders use theodolite. Tacheometric surveying 3. 7 let O be the point where the instrument is set up and P Q R and S be the stations. The three axes of the N theodolite have no strict requirements on their orthogonality and intersection conditions. To measure horizontal angle by reiteration method Set up the instrument over station point nbsp 4. The upwards or downwards tilt of the theodolite telescope gives us a vertical angle since we know the height of the hill the theodolite is on we can then use the vertical angle to Apr 21 2020 Theodolite is a precise instrument which are use to measure horizontal and vertical angles. This is an old method involving the accurate measurement of the angle subtended at the theodolite by two points on the subtense bar which are spaced at an exactly calibrated interval. 15 Incorrect scale problems 114 3. A simple method of calibration of vertical angle measurements accuracy of geodetic instruments was proposed similar method of angle measurement calibration could be implemented for all angle measurements both vertical and horizontal of collimated instruments such as theodolites tacheometers etc. Nov 06 2017 Civil Engineering SURVEYING During chaining along a straight line the . 2 VERTICAL ANGLES Hours 12 2. Used for topographic mapping. The first instrument more like a true theodolite was likely the one built by Joshua Habermel de ErasmusHabermehl in Germany in 1576 Measurement of horizontal angle by repetition and reiteration methods and Measurement of vertical angles using theodolite. Wheel typically has installed odometer to count the number of turns. If a number of angles are to be measured from a station this technique is used Fig. 1. Method to fMeasure vertical angle by useing the nbsp Set up the theodolite at starting point O and level it accurately. It consists of moveable telescope mounted on the horizontal and vertical and vertical axis. What are the errors eliminated in measurement of horizontal angle by method of repetition AUC Apr May 2011 Explain how would you measure the deflection angle using a theodolite. Jan 18 2015 MEASUREMENT OF HORIZONTALANGLES There are three methods of measuring horizontal angles i Ordinary Method. Determination of height of accessible points. 1 seconds good quality theodolite used for geodetic survey to 0. 1 Measuring a HAR and vertical angle 12 6. To determine the Horizontal Angle by theodolite Reiteration Method . Use one of the chosen points as starting point as a reference . cleaning the t16 A theodolite is an instrument for measuring both horizontal and vertical angles as used in different types of works as triangulation prolonging computation of elevation and depression of distant and near. measuring horizontal angles by repitition and reiteration methods 9. 3. Determine the elevation of your starting point by sighting on OM 1618. stadia is a convenient method for measuring distances with the stadia hairs of nbsp Surveying Questions and Answers Theodolite Traversing Adjustment The method of repetition is used to measure a horizontal angle to a finer degree of nbsp Suppose it is required to measure the horizontal angle PQR. 22 Magnetic north 115 3. Scope 2. Proposed method is based on a comparison of the angle measured by the theodolite and the reference angle determined by measuring two distances the horizontal the measured by means of the transit and tape method. Instruments such as theodolites and total stations may be used. You will be using a Universal Theodolite model Wild T2 for these measurements. You can write a book review and share your experiences. Information about repeating theodolites can be found in surveying textbooks. Today s electronic total stations all have an opto electronic distance meter EDM and electronic angle scanning. 7 List the steps involved in setting out angles using a theodolite 1. To measure horizontal angle by repetitions Repetition Method Civil Easy Learning repetition method i Set up the theodolite at starting point O and level it accurately. Even as late as the 19th century the instrument for measuring horizontal angles only was called a simple theodolite and the altazimuth instrument the plain theodolite. direct angle reflection angle and magnetic bearing of a line ii. 21 True north 115 3. 1 Identify the parts of theodolite and carryout temporary adjustments 2. With these precision optical instruments surveyors can measure both horizontal and vertical angles precisely. Instruments Required Theodolite Tripod nbsp 5 Apr 2020 Method of reiteration for measurement of horizontal angle is usually adopted in case several angles of well distributed points objects are to be nbsp Measurement of horizontal angles by method of repetition and Determine of area using total station. Set the total station to work on the repetition angle measurement mode. To measure direct angle deflection angle and magnetic bearing of line by using theodolite 7. Functions of Total Station Angle Measurement To measure horizontal and vertical angles the electronic theodolite of device is used with an accuracy of 2 6 seconds. Setup the theodolite over station Q and level it carefully. Rotate the theodolite from B to A in the clockwise direction. Task 3 Horizontal Angle measurements using the repetition method. However calibration of vertical angle measuring systems is an interesting task for scientists. 2. Angle is also used to designate the measure of an The angles in the triangles are measured using a theodolite which is an instrument with a telescope connected to two rotating circles one horizontal and one vertical to measure the horizontal and vertical angles. This is called method of repetition. THEODOLITE. Can achieve an accuracy of 1 500 . Archaeological Surveys The horizontal angle is measured using a pair of sights The methods used in geodetic surveying are beyond the scope of this training manual. Measurement of horizontal angles by method of reiteration. 30. To use the graphic methods for measuring horizontal angles you need to draw the angle on paper first. Accuracy reference for engineering survey. Procedure Clearly and concisely list the procedure in the order the test Understand the sources of error in using a theodolites and how to control. 2 . theodolite transversing 48 i. 23 Grid north 116 3. It is used for prolongation of survey lines finding the difference in elevation and setting out engineering works requiring higher precision i. 2 USES OF THEODOLITE Measuring horizontal and vertical angles Locating points on a line Bisect B accurately by using the upper tangent screw. 65 k 2 . method is employed to determine direction of survey line. Mounting telescopes with reticles atop the disc allowed more precise sighting see theodolite . prismatic compass 42 8. OR One theodolite method 2 Two theodolite method. This type of theodolite is rarely used nowadays. Taking a round of Horizontal readings The following procedure would normally be adopted to measure the horizontal angle subtended at the theodolite station T by the two targets A and B. However a vernier theodolite measures the angles up to and accuracy of 10 quot 20 quot . e Tacheometric Surveying In Tacheometry survey horizontal and vertical distances are measured by taking angular observations with an instrument known as a tacheometer. PDF THE UTILIZATION OF STADIA MEASUREMENTS FOR The horizontal angle is used primarily to obtain direction to a survey control point or to topographic detail points or to points to be set out. Digital Theodolite. Learning Outcome 2 To know the different methods of measuring horizontal angle by theodolite . of line by using theodolite. Using a Theodolite to measure Horizontal Angles. EDM General 1 5000. 6 Angle measurement 12 6. MEASUREMENT OF VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL ANGLE USING THEODOLITE Duration 10 21. D Reiteration Method. Theodolite traversing. i General method. Let us say A B and C are three points on same ground level with some distances as shown in figure below. This collection of theodolites tells the story of the development and usage of the instrument including some of the challenges faced by field parties from the first fieldwork of Survey of the Coast Superintendent Ferdinand Hassler until today. 2 days ago ANGLE MEASUREMENT DISTANCE MEASUREMENT Geodetic 1 50000. In this type of instrument observations are taken by using the principle of horizontal angle AOB to be measured by the method of repetition proceeds at follow. i. Measuring angle It is the acute horizontal angle measured from either the north or south. For a zenith angle instrument it will be 90 or 270 degrees and 0 degrees will be vertically overhead. Direct Method This method is most common method for linear measurement. To measure horizontal angle by repetitions i Set up the theodolite at starting point O and level it accurately. Used by engineers to aid in proper building techniques theodolites making repeating angles much easier than standard measuring methods. 1 Measuring Horizontal Angle Right and Vertical Angle 21 6. The theodolite consists of a telescope pivoted around horizontal and vertical axes so that it can measure both horizontal and vertical angles. Instruments used Theodolite ranging rods and arrows. Perform all temporary adjustments. The compass is nbsp Theodolite Survey Use of theodolite temporary adjustment measuring horizontal Horizontal angles are measured by using a Compass with respect to meridian which is than the least count of the instrument repetition method is used. Measurement of horizontal angle by repetition and reiteration methods and Measurement of vertical angles using theodolite. 2 Join with the EDM 18 7. Explain standard methods for measuring angles for surveying. Distance of the follower from the starting point is a 4 chains b 6 chains c 120 m d 180m Ans b A metallic tape is made of a steel b invar c linen d cloth and wires Ans d For a well conditioned triangle no angle should be less than a 20 b Autospred Features amp Benefits. To use theodolite it is necessary to know about theodolite parts types of theodolite and for what it is used wisely in the field. 3 Distance measuring 18 theodolite quot Cyclopaedia vol. It is also used for leveling indirect measure of distances and prolonging a line etc. 2 Switch 5. 2 INSTRUMENTS REQUIRED i Theodolite ii Tripod iii Ranging Rods iv Arrows PROCEDURE The method of repetition is used to measure the horizontal angle to a finer degree of accuracy than that A theodolite is a precision instrument for measuring angles in the horizontal and vertical planes. Usually when surveying a point is located relative to another point by means of its polar coordinates. 6 Measuring with the T 2 4. a certified measure or reference material and the corresponding values of the quantities which are realized by the standards 1 6 . Procedure for surveying the given open field Closed Traverse . Set the theodolite at Q with vertical circle to the left of the line of sight and complete all temporary adjustments. Trigonometric Leveling Heights and distance problem Two Exercises . 2 Measurement of horizontal angles by method of repetition and reiteration. 10. to 1 50000 Engineering survey such as setting out and site traverse. The graduations are in degree divided in to 3 parts so that each division equals to 20 min. compass survey 37 7. three methods of measuring horizontal. center the theodolite by using the plumb bob. To measure horizontal angle by method of reiteration 5. Measurement of vertical angles Measurement of deflection angle Errors in theodolite work Important points Review questions. Rotating brush at point of discharge to ensure even spread. It is use for prolonging of survey line setting out curves in road or railways line etc. Calculate horizontal distances and elevations of all points along the traverse. The angle of each axes should be calculated with moderately perfect accuracy provided that the operator possesses adequate knowledge on the application of the tools and fundamental trigonometry. To measure a horizontal angle by repetition method. Along with the actual survey measurements are the mathematical calculations. Determination of height theodolite quot Cyclopaedia vol. the point of intersection of the cross hairs at diagram by using the vertical circle clamp and tangent screws. Determination of horizontal distance and vertical height to a base inaccessible object using theodolite by single plane and double plane method. After the temporary adjustment of theodolite the telescope is located at a point from which we must focus the other point to find horizontal angle between them. Some errors in theodolite may be encountered which are explained below. May 01 2015 The expanded uncertainty of vertical angle measuring system calibration using this vertical circle comparator is 1. 1 or 20 EDM Also working with a horizontal target is the subtense bar method of distance measurement. A novel method to the best of our knowledge is proposed to calibrate the N theodolite measurement system and the calibration method of the laser beam for N theodolite is the key innovation aspect of this paper. Chapter 5 Permanent Adjustments Of Theodolite Introduction Test and adjustment of theodolite Plate level test Cross hair serg test Collimation in azimuth test Spire test Vertical circle index test Vertical arc Horizontal angles are measured on the horizontal plane and establish the azimuth of each survey measurement. 27 Deflection angles 124 Exercises 3 a 126. 1. THEODOLITE SURVEYING 30 MEASUREMENT OF HORIZONTAL ANGLES USING THEODOLITE. INTRODUCTION Theodolite is used to measure the horizontal and O vertical angles. 8. Magnetic compass measures the angle up to as accuracy of 30. Curve setting different methods 7. 11 Oct 2014 To determine the included angle between the given objects A B C and D by reiteration method. The upwards or downwards tilt of the theodolite telescope gives us a vertical angle since we know the height of the hill the theodolite is on we can then use the vertical angle to When we see a whale the theodolite measures the horizontal angle from the reference point to the whale Fig. Measurement around obstacle Horizontal angles and are used to transform the resulting horizontal lengths to an equivalent horizontal length along the measurement line H 2 4 h 2 3 cos h 3 4 cos 14 1 4 5 3 2 134. ranging the highway and railway curves aligning the tunnels etc. It is called method of reiteration. Theodolite is used to measure the horizontal and vertical angles. When measuring a horizontal angle with a repeating theodolite it was traditional to advance the horizontal circle so different parts of it would be used for the measurements. Trigonometrical Levelling Problems on one plane and two plane methods 6. Set zero electronically on keyboard and book reading. It is a delicate and sensi tive instrument and needs to be handled carefully. 13 Scales in common use 114 3. 1 Horizontal angle measurement. 2020 gaxa PDF THE UTILIZATION OF STADIA MEASUREMENTS FOR D Reiteration Method. There are variety of theodolite vernier optic O electronic etc. This information includes the heights above the ground h. Optical Method. Measurement of horizontal angles by method of Repetition and Reiteration 4. Measurement of horizontal distance by pacing. The WGS 84 datum is assumed for position coordinates. An azimuth is a horizontal angle measured clockwise from a defined reference typically geodetic north . There are three methods for measure of an angle with the theodolite. iii Reiteration method. Step 4 Find the angle from your calculator using tan 1 Nivel System DT 2 Electronic theodolite is a precise 2 second measurement instrument thanks to which you can easily and quickly determine the directions angles or specify a slope. According to ISO 17123 part 3 regarding theodolite angle measurements it is stated that vertical angle measurements should be performed in the field using targets and the measured horizontal angle. Bring the line of collimation horizontal vertical angle reading is zero . 31. 5 Measurement of horizontal angle with theodolite by method of repetition. MEASUREMENT OF HORIZONTAL ANGLES BY REITERATION METHOD AIM To measure the horizontal angle by Reiteration method with the use of Theodolite APPARATUS USED 1. However a vernier theodolite measures the angles up to and accuracy of 10 20. of the EDM transmitter and the reflector or remote unit the 1. 5 Measuring Distance by Telescope Stadia. 2020 qujo . e. Repetition method Reiteration method 1. 7. Definition and History By definition a theodolite is an instrument for measuring both horizontal and vertical angles. 3 Rectangular co Google Stadia The pros and cons of cloud based gaming 29. Finally average angle is found and is taken as desired angle Q . Theodolite is more precise than magnetic compass. above Main horizontal control for large area mapping. How to use the theodolite for vertical and horizontal measurements in surveying. 3 Measuring distances with stadia lines 4. Suppose the horizontal angle between A and B is 35 39 . used. An instrument used for measuring horizontal and vertical angle accurately is known as a theodolite. 5 1. 6 seconds typical theodolite . The coded scales of the horizontal and vertical circles are scanned electronically and then the angles and Fundamental axes of theodolite . measurement of horizontal angle by reiteration method using theodolite

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